Co bylo před diafilmem

Prvním materiálem, na který bylo možné nakreslit obrazec a následně ho promítat bylo sklo. Lze uvažovat i o papíru, u něhož to byla otázka průhlednosti a také hořlavosti – nebyl tolik využíván. Jako zdroj světla se využívalo sluneční světlo v kombinaci s čočkou (camera obscura), později také plamene svíčky.

Pomineme-li experimenty, rozmach promítání nastal koncem 17.století a trval do konce 20. století. Fenoménem je přístroj amerického (velmi rozšířen v Německu) původu LATERNA MAGICA. Ilustrace byli malovány na sklo, uložené do dřevěných rámečků nebo složené ze dvou tabulek skla a ostré hrany oblepeny páskou. Objevovaly se různé motivy – od pohádkových přes místopisné a náboženské po vojenské. Zajímavostí je jistě kaleidoskop (krasohled).

Další krok na cestě ke kinofilmu museli učinit chemici. Johann Heinrich Schulze roku 1725 objevil, že soli stříbra jsou citlivé na světlo. Francouzský chemik Joseph Nicéphore Niepce zahájil roku 1822 práce na vynálezu fotografie. V díle pokračoval Daguerre, roku 1839 předvedl francouzské akademii věd první fotografii. Představovala zátiší zachycené na postříbřené destičce potažené jodidem bromitým. Tyto snímky, fixované zpočátku na skle, se nazývaly daguerrotyp.

V roce 1862 angličan Alexander Parkes poprvé mluví o plastech. Celuloid pak vznikl díky americkému amatérskému fotografovi Hannibalovi Goodwinovi jako sloučenina nitrocelulózy s kafrem jako rozpouštědlem. Proslavil ho až američan John Wesley Hyatt, který o několik let později navrhnul jeho použití mj. na výrobu filmů. George Eastman pak začal z něho vyrábět filmy pro své fotografické přístroje Kodak.

Francouz Emile Reynaud, zahájil roku 1876 svou činnost vynálezem nazvaným praxinoskop. Reynaud roku 1892 otevřel v pařížském Grévinově museu Optické divadlo, kde začal promítat — obsluhuje sám svůj projektor — filmy, které nazval světelnými pantomimami, obrázky vlastnoručně maloval na papírový pás.

Masivnější vývoj promítaček logicky souvisel s rozvojem fotografie (vznik filmu na celuloidové podložce navrhl roku 1881 Fourtier, 1888 výroba). Edisonův kinetoskop zavedl filmovou šířku 35 mm, která je používaná dodnes.

Přímým předchůdcem diafilmů byl diapás. Začátkem druhé poloviny 20.století celuloid hlavně kvůli požární bezpečnosti postupně nahradily různé acetáty celulozy a polyetylénu.

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